IELTS academics:

  1. The plans below show a public park when it first opened in 1920 and the same park today. v.1

    The maps show the changes that have occurred in the Grange Park public park from 1920 to today.

    In general, the park has been modified and renovated to offer people more options than they had decades ago, such as a cafe, theater, playground and parking.

    In more detail, the park was opened in 1920, and since then entertainment facilities have been added to it, including a large stage and various recreation areas. There was also noticeable movement in terms of places, and the only areas that remained unchanged were the entrances and one secondary garden. In addition, the fountain was removed in favor of the rosary with full placement around it. To the left of the new garden, the previous stage for musicians was turned into a much larger amphitheater, facing in the opposite direction, which will allow for concerts in the park. This change required the removal of both seats on the far left side, as well as the rosary in the lower left corner of the map.

    In addition, a pond for aquatic plants was removed from the upper right of the garden, and a children's playground was introduced in the upper right of the park, and a cafe was built near this area. Instead of a pond, a water body was built, occupying the lower right corner. Interestingly, the number of rosaries has been reduced to two. In addition, an underground car park was built in the lower right corner of the park.



  2. The diagram below shows how electricity is generated in a hydroelectric power station. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. v.1

    The diagram describes the process of generating electricity at a hydroelectric power station. The process begins when water flows from the river to a high-level reservoir and ends with the transmission of electricity to the national grid.

    In general, the process is broadly divided into day and night stages, with daylight stages including the generation of electricity from a river and the storage of water in a reservoir. At night, water flows back in the opposite direction to the original reservoir and river.

    The daily stage of the process includes the direction of river water to a high-level reservoir supported by a dam. There is a water intake area leading to the power plant, which opens during the day and closes at night. Water flows throughout the day to generate electricity through the turbines of the power plant. The generated electricity is then sent to the national grid via power lines, while the excess water enters the low level reservoir.

    At the night stage, the water stored in the low-level tank is returned to the power station, and the generator turbines pump it back to the high-level tank, which is closed at night. River water is stored at the upper level, and then flows down, again starting the cycle.



  3. The chart below shows the value of one country’s exports in various categories during 2015 and 2016. The table shows the percentage change in each category of exports in 2016 compared with 2015. v.3

    The histogram compares the country's export revenues in billions of dollars from five different product categories in 2015 and 2016, and the table data shows the percentage change in export earnings in 2016 compared to the previous year. In general, in 2015 and 2016, the main sources of export revenue for this country were oil and oil products, and in 2016, the volume of exports increased compared to previous years, with the exception of precious stones and jewelry. In detail, the country earned approximately $ 220 billion from its export trading in 2015, which increased by approximately $ 10 billion the following year. In 2015, oil export revenues amounted to more than $ 60 billion, which is the highest indicator, while the production of machine goods amounted to almost $ 58 billion, which is the second largest. The following year, they amounted to approximately 63 and 62 billion, respectively. In 2015, revenues from jewelry and agricultural products amounted to 70 billion, and textile goods - about 27 billion, which is the lowest rate. In 2016, the country exported just over $ 30 billion of textile and agricultural products each and almost $ 40 billion of jewelry. The following year, the country received more export revenue, with the exception of jewelry, revenue from which fell by almost 5%. In addition, the export of engineering goods grew by 8. 5%, while the largest increase was in textile products - more than 15%. Finally, he earned 3% and about 1% more from oil and agricultural products in 2016 than in 2015.



  4. The charts below show the average percentages in typical meals of three types of nutrients, all of which may be unhealthy if eaten too much. v.2

    Pie charts illustrate the ratio of sodium, saturated fat to sugar in four daily daily meals consumed by Americans. The percentage of these three nutrients in breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks that American citizens typically consume is unhealthy if consumed in large quantities. In general, lunches and dinners consumed by US residents are made up of sodium and saturated fats, while their snacks contain a lot of added sugar. In detail, the consumption of sodium, sugar and saturated fats by US citizens during breakfast is relatively lower, each time about 14-16%. The intake of these nutrients is significantly higher in the foods they eat during lunch and dinner. The lunch they eat consists of 29% sodium, 26% saturated fat, and almost 20% sugar. They consume a much higher percentage of these nutrients, which are unhealthy when eaten too much while they cook dinner. Their intake of sodium, saturated fat and sugar during lunch is 43%, 37% and 23%, respectively. Finally, the snacks they like contain high amounts of sugar and fat, 42% and 21%, respectively, and sugar consumption in snacks is higher than at lunch and dinner.



  5. The charts below show the average percentages in typical meals of three types of nutrients, all of which may be unhealthy if eaten too much. v.3

    The diagram illustrates the relationship between the three types of nutrients in typical meals, which can be unhealthy if consumed too much. Sodium, saturated fats, and added sugar are the three nutritional nutrients, and the data is taken from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks that Americans eat. Generally speaking, Americans eat less sodium, saturated fat and sugar during breakfast, but they consume a significant portion of them during lunch and dinner. Snacks also contain these nutrients in abundance. The first chart shows the average percentage of sodium intake by Americans. Dinner contains the highest ratio of sodium (43%), while 29% is eaten during lunch. Breakfast and snacks include an equal proportion of sodium, which is 14% each. The second chart shows the percentage of saturated fats in food. When dining, average Americans consume 37% of saturated fat, which is the highest among all types of food. Lunch contributes to the consumption of 26% saturated fats, followed by snacks with 21% and breakfast with 16%. The last pie chart illustrates the proportion of added sugar in food. Snacks contain the highest share of this, 42%. A typical dinner includes 23% sugar, while lunch and breakfast contain 19% and 16% respectively. It is worth noting that these three nutrients are consumed less by Americans at breakfast.



  6. Charts A and B show the share of the UK and Australian cinema market in 2001 and cinema admission in the UK and Australia from 1976 to 2006. v.1

    The histogram provides data on the origin of the films that were shown in Australia and the UK in 2001, and a line graph compares the number of movie theater visitors in these two countries from 1976 to 2006.

    In general, American films dominated the Australian and British theaters during this period, and more Britons visited theaters than their Australian counterparts between 1976 and 2005.

    As the data show, more than 75% of films that were released in UK movie theaters in 2001 were shot in the United States, while 20% were made locally. In addition, almost one in ten films shown in the UK was shot in Australia. A similar tendency to show films could be seen in Australia this year, when American films ran movie theaters with a 65% ratio. Australians could watch fewer British films, as only one in twenty British films made it into Australian lounges. Interestingly, local films produced in Australia were unjustifiable as a percentage - as their ratio of views shows.

    Obviously, more Britons enjoyed movie theaters in the theater than Australians between 1976 and 2005. In 1975, more than 100 million British watched films in the halls, while in Australia there were about 30 million. With some hesitation, the number of Australian moviegoers has reached over 80 million in 3 decades. In contrast, the number of visitors to British cinema decreased from 1977 to 1984, but subsequently grew steadily with slight fluctuations. After 30 years, almost 160 million Britons went to the cinema - almost twice as many as the Australians.



  7. The chart below shows the percentage of total US population aged 65 and over between 1900 and 2000. v.1

    The column graph summarizes the percentage of senior citizens in the United States who were over 64 years old between 1900 and 2000 based on US Census data from the US Census Bureau over the past ten years.

    Generally speaking, the proportion of older people in the United States has increased significantly over this period, and 65–74-year-olds were the highest percentages of older Americans.

    According to the schedule, in 1900, four out of a hundred Americans were over 64 years old, and most of them at that time were between 65 and 74 years old. Moreover, the ratio of people over 85 in this decade was very small. However, after three decades, the proportion of older people in the United States reached more than 5% and continued to grow until the end of the 20th century. So, in 1970, almost one in ten US citizens was elderly, and 0. 7% of them were 85 years old. The growth of older people accelerated even further after 1980 in the United States. As a result, over the past two decades of the 20th century, 12% of the elderly lived in the United States, and nearly 4. 5% were between 75 and 84 years old and 1. 5% were over 85 years old.



  8. The graph below shows the average monthly use of health club in Miami and Florida by all full-time members in 2017. The pie charts show the age profile of male and female members of this health club. v.1

    The figures show the number of full-time men and women working in medical centers in Miami and Florida during 2017, and the ratio of these members depending on their gender and age is shown. In general, more men were active members of the medical center than women, and just over half were between the ages of 21 and 45.

    According to the histogram, in January 2017, 500 women were active members of various fitness clubs in Florida and Miami, while the number of men was slightly higher. The number of participants in these gyms and medical centers remained virtually unchanged until April, but then rapidly increased from June to September. During this period, in the fitness centers of these two districts, there were more than 800 active male participants and slightly more than 700 women. The number of members of the men's health club has always been higher than women. From October to the end of the year, fewer members remained in these clubs, and this number ranged from 500 to 700.

    According to the pie chart, more than half of the male members of these fitness clubs were between 21 and 45 years old, while for women it was exactly 50%. Men over 65 accounted for a quarter of the participants, while for women this indicator was 6% higher. The remaining fifth members of the fitness club were from different age groups.



  9. The first graph gives the number of passengers travelling by train in Sydney. The second graph provides information on the percentage of trains running on time. v.1

    The line graphs show data on the number of passengers of trains in Sydney for the period from 1995 to 2004, and also shows the ratio of trains that ran on time for the same period. As a general trend, the number of railway passengers in Sydney gradually increased from 1995 to 2002, and in 2004 a higher percentage of locomotives could not start on time.

    According to data, in 1995, 250 million passengers used rail in Sydney, and this number gradually increased over the next 4 years. In 1999, the number of commuter passengers in Sydney was about 265 million, and it rose sharply over the next two years before falling again in 2002. In 2000, 280 million passengers used locomotives, and this number increased even more and reached the highest level, 300 million, in 2001. From 2002 to 2004, the number of train passengers remained constant at 280 million.

    In addition, more than 92% of trains arrived in 1995 and reached their destination on time, but this indicator worsened and fell to just over 85% in 1997. In 2000, almost 15% of the rails could not keep the schedule, and this scenario was the worst in 2004, when more than 25% of the trains in Sydney could not go on time.



  10. The graph gives information about drinking habits of the US population by age. v.1

    The histogram shows the habits of alcohol consumption by Americans, depending on their age group. As you can see, the model of alcohol consumption by US citizens varies greatly depending on their age, and older people over 65 mostly refrain from drinking alcohol.

    According to the chart, 60% of US citizens between the ages of 16 and 24 have never consumed alcohol, while approximately 10% of them drank, but are now teetotalers. About a quarter of these young Americans are light drinkers, while the remaining 5% drink a lot. A similar picture can be observed in the age group of 25-34 years, but with an increase in the proportion of irregular drinkers and almost 8% of drinkers.

    It is interesting to note that chronic alcoholics in the USA are the highest at the age of 35-54 years, and this ratio is lower among young and old people. The number of people who have never had alcohol decreases with increasing age, and you can observe the opposite trend for former drinkers, whose proportion grows with age.

    The greatest number of drinkers falls on the age group from 45 to 54 years old, and among drinkers - the largest among Americans aged 25 to 34 years. Finally, the vast majority of the US population, nearly 40%, quit drinking when they were over 64 years old.



  11. The graphs below show how people in a European city reached their office and got back home in 1959 and 2009. v.1

    The pie charts show how the inhabitants of a European city got to their offices and left them in 1959 and 2009. In general, more than half of visitors had to walk in 1959, and car use in 2009 increased significantly. In addition, people traveled a great distance in 2009 at a higher speed.

    According to the illustration, more than half of job owners went to get to their office and return home in 1959, while only a quarter of them did so in 2009. Bus passengers in this city made up 15% in 1959, while it was 2% less after 5 decades. The ratio of office managers (15%) who used trains in both years remained unchanged. In 1959, one in ten office passengers traveled by car, but after five decades their percentage increased significantly, or rather 35%. The use of various other transportations in 2009 increased compared to 50 years earlier.

    It is worth noting that the speed and average distance traveled by these passengers increased significantly in 2009, when passengers traveled an average of 19 kilometers in 42 minutes compared to the average 3. 5-kilometer journey in 17 minutes in 1959.



  12. The graph below shows the amount of UK investments in clean energy from 2008 to 2015. v.1

    The bar graph presents the UK's annual investment in clean energy between 2008 and 2015. It is obvious that during this period the UK budget for clean energy increased, and wind energy received significant attention in terms of the grant received.

    According to data, in 2008, the British authorities funded almost two and a half billion pounds for the production of clean energy, and half of them went to wind energy. The following year, the budget for wind energy almost tripled, and a small part was spent on smart technologies in the field of energy and solar energy. In 2009, more than $ 7 billion was invested in the United Kingdom to produce clean energy, which reached $ 15 billion in 2015. Investments in the next two years, 2010 and 2011, remained the same, but more than one third was spent on solar energy. From 2012 to 2015, the United Kingdom spent approximately $ 3-5 billion annually on solar energy production. In the following years, the UK government invested mainly in wind and solar energy, and smart energy technologies attracted a significant share of UK clean energy investment over the entire period.



  13. The tables below provide information about the consumption and production of potatoes in five parts of the world in 2006. v.1

    These tables contain information on the consumption and production of potatoes in different parts of the world in 2006. Overall, average potato consumption in Europe was the highest, while Asia and Europe were the main potato producers in 2006.

    As the data show, the average European ate just over 96 kg of potatoes in 2006, which was higher than potato consumption in other parts of the world. In terms of potato consumption, approximately 58 kg per person in 2006, North America ranked second. Asia, despite the highest accumulation of potatoes, accounts for about 26 kg per person of potato consumption. Citizens of South and Central America ate more than 23 kg per person, while the lowest potato consumption can be seen in Africa, just over 14 kg per African.

    In 2006, more than 131 million tons of potatoes were produced in Asian countries, which significantly exceeded the growth of potatoes in Africa and America. The potato harvest in Europe was the second largest, about 5 million tons less than in Asia. It is worth noting that Asia and Europe were the main producers of potatoes in 2006.



  14. The tables below provide information about the consumption and production of potatoes in five parts of the world in 2006. v.2

    These tables illustrate potato consumption per person and the total production of this crop in five different regions of the world - South and Central America, Africa, North America, Europe and Asia in 2016. According to the information provided, Europeans ate more potatoes than residents of other regions on average and Asia harvested the most potatoes in 2016. In particular, Europeans were the main consumers of potatoes in 2006, as every European ate 96. 1 kg of potatoes. Then North America and Asia took the second and third places in the list of consumers of this culture - 57. 9 and 25. 8 kg per person, respectively. It is interesting to note that the average European consumed almost twice as much potato as the North American, and almost four times as much as an Asian citizen. Consumption in Africa was the smallest, almost 14 kg per person, while in South and Central America it was 23. 6 kg. In addition, Asia produced the largest number of potatoes - 131. 2 million tons, despite a lower level of consumption. More than 126 million tons of potatoes were grown in Europe, and the two regions were the main producers of potatoes in 2006.



  15. The graph shows children by age group as a percentage of the young population in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2001. v.1

    The line graph shows the proportion of children with respect to the total number of young people in the UK from 1990 to 2001. The proportion of children by category in four age groups. In general, the proportion of infants aged 0 to 4 years old has decreased over this period, while the proportion of teenagers in the UK between 10 and 14 years old has increased.

    As can be seen from the diagram, a little more than a quarter of children in the UK in 1990 were between 15 and 19 years old, while at that time a similar proportion was between 0 and 4 years old. Just over 24% of young Britons were between 5 and 9 years old, while 23% of them were between 10 and 14 years old. With an increase from 1990 to 1992, the proportion of infants continued to decline, and in 2001 they accounted for more than 23% of the total number of young people. With a steady decline until 1996, 15-19 years were a quarter of young Britons in 2001.

    Moving on, 10-14 years, the British dominated the younger generation in the UK with a steady increase in their percentage in later years, despite their smallest share in the early years. Finally, 5-9 years old British children were more than 26% during 1995-1997, but their ratio decreased and finally amounted to just over 25% in 2001.



  16. The graph below shows waste recycling rates in the U. S. from 1960 to 2011. v.2

    A line graph shows how much waste was recycled in the USA between 1960 and 2011. Garbage processing is presented both in quantity, in millions of tons, and in percentage. Generally speaking, recycling in the United States after 1985 has increased markedly, despite the fact that a significant proportion of the waste has not been recycled. According to the data, in 1960, 5. 6 million tons of garbage were recycled in the USA, which amounted to 6. 4% of garbage production this year. Recycling in 1965 decreased slightly, but increased in 1970, when 6. 6% of the waste was recycled. In 1980, more than 14 million tons of garbage was recycled, and over 5 years it grew by almost 2%. After a decade, 16% of all waste has been recycled, and this ratio has since grown steadily. In 2005, almost a third of the surplus was processed, which amounted to almost 80 million tons. End-to-end observation shows that a large percentage of scrap in the United States is not recycled. For example, 80 million tons, about 31% of the data on waste recycling in the USA, show that another 160 million tons are not disposed of. Finally, in 2011, more than one third of the garbage was recycled, which amounted to about 87 million tons of waste generated in the United States.



  17. The line graph below shows the population size, birth and death rate of England and Wales from 1700 to 2000. v.1

    The line graph shows fertility, mortality, and the total population of England and Wales over three centuries, from 1700 to 2000. As a general trend, the population of England and Wales overwhelmingly increased after the 19th century and the mortality rate decreased, while the birth rate went up after 1950.

    As can be seen from the diagram, the population of England and Wales at the beginning of the 18th century was only 3 million, which in 10 years reached 10 million. Over the next 50 years, the population declined markedly and again reached just over 3 million at the beginning of the 19th century. However, one can observe a rapid population growth, which in the following centuries soared to 50 million in 2000.

    The birth rate and birth rate per 1000 people in England and Wales was 30 in 1700, which rose to 40 after 50 years. The mortality rate, the number of deaths per 1000 people, followed a similar trend and reached almost 38 in 1750. After that, the birth rate and mortality rate declined steadily and reached a little over 20 in 1950, with some fluctuations in previous decades. After that, the birth rate rose sharply and increased sharply, and the mortality rate stabilized. In 2000, the birth rate in the UK and Wales was 34, and the mortality rate was 20.



  18. The chart below shows the internet users (in millions) in different countries in the Middle East as of June 2017. v.1

    The bar graph shows the number of Internet users in June 2017 in nine different countries in the Middle East. As a general trend, there were much more Internet users in Iran and Saudi Arabia than in other countries.

    According to the diagram, among the countries of the Middle East in June 2017, Iran had the largest number of Internet users, which exceeded 56 million. Saudi Arabia, with exactly 24. 15 million Internet users, ranked second in the list. In addition, 14 million Iranians were connected to this digital world, which was significantly smaller than that of Internet users in Iran and Saudi Arabia, but significantly higher than in most other Arab countries. Interestingly, in Yemen, Israel, Jordan and Syria there were the same number of Internet subscribers, which ranged from 6 to 7 million. Finally, in the United Arab Emirates, just over 8. 5 million people had access to the Internet in June 2017, and the smallest number of Internet users in the country were from Lebanon, where less than 5 million people had access to Internet technology.



  19. The table data below shows the top ten Internet users by country in 2016. v.1

    The table shows the data on the top ten countries of the world with the largest number of Internet users in 2016. It shows the number of people with access to the Internet, the total population of the country and the percentage of people with access to the Internet. as of 2016. Overall, China had the highest Internet users, while Great Britain and Japan had the highest Internet users.

    As can be seen from the illustration, the population of China in 2016 amounted to more than 1. 3 billion people, and more than half of them had access to the Internet. In terms of the number of Internet users, China ranked first in the list, where India and the United States took second and third positions, respectively, with more than 462 million and 286 million Internet users. Although the population of India was more than 1. 3 billion people, only a third of them were connected to the Internet, unlike the United States, where almost nine out of ten citizens used the Internet. Brazil, Japan and Russia with more than 100 million network users (citizens who are connected to the Internet) took fourth place in sixth place. Great Britain and Mexico were at the bottom of the list with about 60 million netizens. However, the proportion of Internet users in the UK was the highest - over 92%, while it was the second largest in the United States.



  20. The pie charts below show the coffee production, coffee consumption and the profit distribution around the world. v.1

    Pie charts correlate world coffee consumption, coffee production in four countries, and profit distribution between coffee-related business segments. It is obvious that Europeans and Americans are the main consumers of coffee, while South Africa is the largest producer of coffee among these countries. Moreover, coffee companies make more profit than other organizations that do business in this industry.

    According to the illustration, Europeans drink more than 40% of coffee, which is the highest rate of coffee consumption in the world. America consumes 2% less than while the Japanese scatter only 8% of the world's coffee. The rest of the world just consumes 12% of the coffee.

    South Africa accounts for 44% of coffee production, the highest. Indonesia collects 22% of coffee, exactly half of South African coffee. Japan and Vietnam produce 18% and 16% of coffee, respectively. Interestingly, despite the fact that Japan is one of the leading countries in the production of coffee, its consumption coefficient is relatively lower.

    Finally, more than half of the profits from coffee come from the delivery industry. The share of coffee retailers is about a quarter, and coffee producers and exporters receive 10% and 15% respectively.